Executavam em eiras a separação dos grãos de cereais dos caules ou palha. Desfaziam os feixes preparados pelos ceifeiros e espalhavam os caules na eira antes de os homens os malharem ou de animais os trilharem. Os processos tradicionais europeus compreendiam vários objectos: pá, malho ou mangual (principalmente para centeio e milho), o trilho. Terminada esta fase atiravam os grãos ao ar com uma pá para o vento afastar os detritos leves. Juntavam os grãos com um rado. A mais antiga debulhadora inventou-a Andrew Meikle, engenheiro escocês em 1784. Posteriormente enfardavam a palha. Mais tarde apareceram as ceifeiras-debulhadoras.
The separation of cereal grains from stalks or straw was performed on a threshing floor. They undid the bundles prepared by the reapers and spread the stalks on the threshing floor before they were thrashed by workers or tread out by animals. In European traditional processes various objects were used: a shovel, a mallet or flail (mainly for rye and maize), a board. Once this phase was over, the grains were tossed with a shovel so that the light detritus could be removed by the wind. The grains were gathered with a rake. The oldest threshing machine was invented by Andrew Meikle, Scottish engineer, in 1784. Later the straw was baled. The combine harvester appeared later.
Unknown-´threshing machine'-1881 Dictionnaire d'Arts Industrielles
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828)-'threshing floor or summer'-oil on canvas-(1786-1787) Madrid-Museo del Prado
Sergey Vinogradov (1869-1938)-'threshing floor'-oil on canvas-1916 Nukus (Uzbekistan)-Savitsky Art Museum
William Brassey Hole (1846-1917)-'King David purchasig the threshing floor (2 Samuel, XXIV, 20-25)'-oil on canvas Private collection
Ludovic Bassarab (1868-1933)-'threshing'-oil on plywood-ca 1934